Video credit European GNSS Agency



The error caused by multipath on each individual pseudorange can be monitored in real-time in Septentrio’s RxControl application, by opening the MPx Time Plot. Multipath errors tend to exhibit an oscillating pattern, with amplitude at the meter level, as illustrated below in a screenshot from RxControl.


APME+: Principle

APME+, also known as A-Posteriori Multipath Estimation, uses extra correlators in each tracking channel to estimate the multipath error on the pseudorange and carrier phase measurements.  The measurements are then corrected by subtracting the estimated error.  While most other multipath mitigation techniques involve modifying the correlators in the tracking channels, APME+ leaves the tracking channels unchanged.   The multipath errors are estimated independently from the tracking of the signal. 

The following figure shows the difference between the pseudorange error when APME+ is disabled (in blue), and when it is enabled (in green).  APME+ reduces the error by more than a factor 2.



APME+: Specifically tuned for short-delay multipath

Reflections from nearby surfaces (roof, ground, building, etc), are the most prevalent and also the most treacherous.  Signals reflected by nearby surfaces (<20m distance) arrive at the antenna with only a short delay compared to the straight signal.  They are therefore difficult to differentiate from the straight signal and many mitigation algorithms do not perform good against them. 

Figure 3 shows the effect of APME+ on the position accuracy in DGNSS mode.

APME+ is enabled by default in all Septentrio receivers.



APME+ on the other hand is specifically designed to address short-delay multipath.  This is illustrated in figure 4, showing the multipath envelope for the GPS L1 CA signal.  The multipath envelope shows the error resulting from a reflected signal with a given delay.  As can be seen, APME+ has the smallest envelope for short delays.

APME+: Bias free!

A common issue with other multipath mitigation techniques is that they introduce biases in the measurements.  This is because they require modifying the correlators inside the tracking channels, thereby modifying the point at which the receiver locks onto the GNSS signals.  This is known to introduce satellite-dependent biases.  In many cases, these biases are unacceptable.