How to combat radio frequency GPS / GNSS interference, jamming and spoofing?
One of the central pillars ensuring reliability of Septentrio GPS/GNSS receivers is the AIM+ technology. This Advanced Interference Monitoring and Mitigation patented technology is built into each one of our receivers, offering resistance against radio interference as well as security against intentional GNSS jamming and spoofing.
GNSS Interference occurs when inherently low-powered GNSS signals are overpowered by other radio signals on the same frequency. This can happen in situations where GNSS receivers are close to other electronic devices (read also the Jam proofing drones and self interference insight), radio antennas or modems. Radio amateurs sending out radio signals in the area can unintentionally cause GNSS interference. Interference can reduce positioning accuracy or cause receivers to lose RTK or even PVT (Position, Velocity, Time) all together.
On rare occasions interference is crated intentionally to disrupt operation of unprotected GPS receivers. Illegal jamming devices can be used to knock out GPS receivers within 100s of meters radius.
GPS / GNSS jamming devices
Jamming devices are sometimes used by truck drivers to avoid road tolling. Such a (GPS) jammer device will disable the GPS unit on the truck, but will also affect other GPS devices in the vicinity.
Spoofing is when a GPS receiver reports wrong positioning because it has received GNSS signals with intentionally incorrect positioning information sent by a 3rd party. Spoofing devices can be used to hijack autonomous vehicles and send them on alternate routes. This article describes how several ships in the Red Sea had their GPS receiver reporting a position at a faraway airport. Static GNSS receiver such as those doing time synchronization at telecom towers are especially vulnerable to GNSS spoofing.
In order to combat spoofing, GNSS receivers need to detect spoofed signals out of a mix of authentic and spoofed signals. Once a satellite signal is flagged as spoofed, it can be excluded from positioning calculation. Spoofing can be detect by looking for signal anomalies, or by using signals designed to prevent spoofing such as Galileo OSNMA and E6 or the GPS military code. For more information see What is spoofing and how to ensure GPS security.
AIM+ technology detects and neutralizes interference resulting in faster set-up, reduced downtime and secure operation. AIM+ protects against simple narrow-band interference as well as more complex wide-band interference, including jamming and spoofing. Your receiver’s web interface allows you to analyze interference with the spectral plot, to be able to determine the type of interference and its possible source. AIM+ can't even be spoofed by an advanced GNSS signal generator: Spirent GSS9000. With realistic power levels and with actual navigation data within the signal, AIM+ can identify it as a “non-authentic” signal.
Using AIM+ to detect and mitigate GNSS RF interference
Narrow-band GNSS/ GPS interference can be caused by electronic devices and effects only a small portion of the GNSS frequency spectrum. To mitigate the effects of narrow-band interference, 3 notch filters can be configured either in auto or manual mode. These notch filters effectively remove a narrow part of the RF spectrum around the interfering signal. The L2 band, being open for use by radio amateurs, is particularly vulnerable to this type of interference. The effects of wideband interference, both intentional and unintentional, can be mitigated by enabling the WBI mitigation system. The WBI system also reduces, more effectively than traditionally used pulse-blanking methods, the effects of pulsed interferers.
The power spectrum plot
In the Spectrum window of the GNSS menu, you can monitor the RF spectrum and configure three separate notch filters to cancel out narrowband interference. The figure below shows the L2 frequency band with the GPS L2P signal at 1227.60 MHz indicated. Different bands can be viewed by clicking on the ‘Show table’ button as shown. The spectrum is computed from baseband samples taken at the output of the receiver’s analog to digital converters.
GNSS RF Interference Mitigation by configuring the notch filters
In the default auto mode of the notch filters, the receiver performs automatic interference mitigation of the region of the spectrum affected by interference. In manual mode, as shown configured for Notch1 in the above figure, the region of affected spectrum is specified by a centre frequency and a bandwidth which is effectively blanked by the notch filter.
With the Notch1 settings as shown above, the L2-band after the notch filter (After IM) is shown below with the blanked section clearly visible.
Wideband interference mitigation
Wideband interference of GNSS signals can be caused unintentionally by military and civilian ranging and communication devices. There are also intentional sources of interference from devices such as chirp jammers. The wideband interference mitigation system (WBI) can reduce the effect of both types of interference on GNSS signals.
Configuring WBI mitigation
The wideband interference mitigation system can be enabled by selecting ‘on’ as shown below.
WBI mitigation in action
The GPS L1 band interference shown in the below figure is produced by combining the GNSS antenna signal with the output from an in-car GPS chirp jammer.
When WBI mitigation is enabled, the effect of the interference is dramatically reduced as below figure shows
- Webinar: GNSS hacking, from satellite signals to hardware/software cybersecurity
- Brochure: 20 pages pdf: Everything you need to know about radiofrequency interference (RFI) on GNSS/GPS signals
- Insights Articles: